The MM-1 (Russian: Маска Мембрана - "Mask, Membrane") was a Soviet made gas mask designed during the 1950s, it was designed to be used by radio operators, naval personnel and tank crewmen.
History and Use Edit
As the mask was designed for radio operators and tankers, it used a head harness to connect the mask to the user rather than the normal Soviet "Helmet" type, this allowed the user to hear clearly. Following on from this, the mask featured an effective voice diaphragm so that the wearer could be understood well. The mask also had eye lenses that pointed directly forward, allowing the use of tank periscopes and other optics.
The MM-1 was primarily manufactured in the Soviet Union, however Bulgaria was also a prominent supplier of this mask [along with the SHM-41M & SHMS]. These Bulgarian sourced masks only differed by the colour and shape of the valve assembly, as well as stamping on the mask. [Bulgarian made masks will have a green paint, or an unpainted 'finish' depending on which year/ factory they originate from].
Although the more common SHMS was developed in the 1960's as an optical mask which also was a helmet mask, the MM1 still saw use with the RSH-4 kit up until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. It should be noted that the MM1's head harness was updated around in start of 70's, resulting in its not having a rubberized mesh piece on the head, Soviets did this with all their masks that used head harness, they taught that without the rubberized mesh piece the mask would form a better seal on user's face.
The MM-1 used a standard Soviet hose which was connected to a EO-16 filter located in a haversack, allowing the wearer to be exposed for long periods of time. The mask's valve assembly is identical to that of the SHM-41mu and SHMS and the mask features tissot tubes)